Introduction to the database
SecondHandSongs is a database of cover songs and samples. An advanced database is used which stores the data in a reusable and maintainable way.
What is a work?
A work is the immaterial concept of a musical piece of art. It usually has one or more credits, which are acknowledgments of those who contributed to a work. An artist can be credited as a composer of a work (writing the music), as an author of a work (writing the lyrics), or both.
- Example: the work Summertime was written by composer George Gershwin and authors Ira Gershwin and DuBose Heyward.
What is a performance?
A performance is a version of a work performed by one or more performing artists. A performance can be an original or a cover or sampling version.
How is an original performance defined?
SHS defines three types of originals for a work.
- The first (public) performance of a work
- The first recording of a work
- The first release of a work
Note: a work should always have at least one original performance associated with it, unless the work is a traditional.
How is a cover version defined?
A cover is a performance of a work that is not an original, performed by an artist different from the artist performing the original performance.
- Example: the 1973 version of Apache by Incredible Bongo Band is a cover version because it is neither the original performance, recording or release of the work.
What is an adaptation?
An adaptation is a new version of a work, for instance a translation. An adaptation usually has new credits, and can have original and cover performances as well.
An adaptation can be based on multiple works as well.
What is a sample?
A sample is a piece of a performance reused in another performance.
Are remixes considered as samples?
A remix is an alternate mix of a recorded performance different from the original version, made using the techniques of audio editing. Note that we also classify mash-ups as remixes. Remixes are not included in our database, except when the remix itself is sampled or covered by another artist.